By Michael Quinten
A one-stop, concise advisor on opting for and measuring skinny movie thickness through optical methods.
This useful ebook covers the legislation of electromagnetic radiation and interplay of sunshine with topic, in addition to the speculation and perform of thickness dimension, and glossy functions. In so doing, it exhibits the functions and possibilities of optical thickness selection and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of size units in addition to their overview methods.
Following an creation to the subject, bankruptcy 2 provides the fundamentals of the propagation of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation in area and subject. the most subject of this e-book, the choice of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack via measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is handled within the following 3 chapters. the colour of skinny layers is mentioned in bankruptcy 6. eventually, in bankruptcy 7, the writer discusses numerous business purposes of the layer thickness size, together with high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, obvious conductive motion pictures, oxides and polymers, skinny movie photovoltaics, and seriously doped silicon.
Aimed at business and educational researchers, engineers, builders and brands serious about all components of optical layer and skinny optical movie dimension and metrology, method regulate, real-time tracking, and applications.
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–5):
Chapter 2 Propagation of sunshine and different Electromagnetic Waves (pages 7–57):
Chapter three Spectral Reflectance and Transmittance of a Layer Stack (pages 59–80):
Chapter four The Optical size (pages 81–119):
Chapter five Thin?Film Thickness choice (pages 121–140):
Chapter 6 the colour of skinny motion pictures (pages 141–147):
Chapter 7 purposes (pages 149–185):
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Additional info for A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films
EÀEgap ÀcC =2 EÀEgap ÀcV =2 1 ðc c Þ3=2 Àexp Á exp þ pﬃﬃ C V cV cC 2 e cV ÀcC ð2:108Þ with YðzÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ z Á expðÀzÞ þ 0:5 p Á erfcð zÞ and erfc ¼ error function. 7 Dielectric Function and Refractive Index 2) E ! Egap þ (cC þ cV)/2 EÀEgap EÀEgap 1 c2C ﬃ Á exp ÁY JðEÞ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃ À 2 cC cC 2e EÀEgap EÀEgap 1 c2V ﬃ Á exp ÁY þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃ À þ 2 cV cC 2e ð2:109Þ Á2 1 À c c þ pﬃﬃ EÀEgap Á L À C Á ; À V Á 2 e 2 EÀEgap 2 EÀEgap with Lðx; yÞ ¼ ! Ð 1Ày pﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ z 1Àz dz. 2). 23. A controversial model is the model of Forouhi and Bloomer  for amorphous materials.
38]. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO, In2O3:SnO2) is of distinct interest because in this material free electrons contribute to a certain electrical conductivity of the material, but thin layers of ITO keep transparent at wavelengths in the visible spectral range. Hence, ITO ﬁlms are often used in applications where an electrical current is used for switching a process and where in addition the ﬁlm must be transparent, for example, in ﬂat panel displays or OLEDs (organic light emitting diodes) or as TCO (transparent conductive oxide) in thin-ﬁlm photovoltaics.
Optical constants from Ref. . Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO, In2O3:SnO2) is of distinct interest because in this material free electrons contribute to a certain electrical conductivity of the material, but thin layers of ITO keep transparent at wavelengths in the visible spectral range. Hence, ITO ﬁlms are often used in applications where an electrical current is used for switching a process and where in addition the ﬁlm must be transparent, for example, in ﬂat panel displays or OLEDs (organic light emitting diodes) or as TCO (transparent conductive oxide) in thin-ﬁlm photovoltaics.
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