Afrikanische Pfeilgifte by Dr. Hans Dieter Neuwinger

By Dr. Hans Dieter Neuwinger

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Den gleichen kristallinen Wirkstoff fand er auch kurz danach in Strophanthus glabre DU GABON (= Strophanthus gratus) [148]. THOMS [149] bestätigte 1904 diesen Wirkstoff in authentischem Strophanthus gratus aus Kamerun und nannte das isolierte kristalline Glykosid „g-Strophanthin". Dagegen erhielten diese Forscher aus Strophanthus kombe stets amorphe Körper, von einer Ausnahme abgesehen [150]. THOMS führte 1904 (in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Botaniker E. GILG) die Unterscheidung der Strophanthine nach ihrem Ausgangsmaterial ein: g-, k-, h-, e-Strophanthin (= gratus, kombe, hispidus, emini) [149].

Ber die Wirksamkeit des Larven-Pfeilgiftes, Zerfall des Hämoglobins mit vielfachen Folgeerscheinungen bis zur allgemeinen Lähmung, liegen sehr unterschiedliche Berichte vor. Nach STEYN [129] hat das Diamphidia nigro-ornata-Pfeilgift Lähmung und Tod innerhalb weniger Minuten zur Folge. Als minimale tödliche Dosis fand er bei Kaninchen 0,25 bis 0,5 mg/ kg. Ähnliche Ergebnisse erhielten auch LEWIN [22] und BREYER-BRANDWIJK [127]; die Wirkung soll ähnlich der von Schlangengift sein [209]. Diese „sofort tödliche" Wirkung, die STEYN festgestellt hat, wird von anderen Autoren bestritten.

BIJLSAM und DE WAARD [131] berichten über pharmakologische Versuche mit Diamphidia-Larvengift an verschiedenen Tieren. Die Buschmänner selbst fürchten ihr Larven-Pfeilgift sehr. Den vergifteten Pfeilspitzenschaft führen sie sorgfältig im Köcher mit und stecken ihn erst kurz vor dem Schuß auf den Hauptschaft. Es sei noch erwähnt, daß zahlreiche Todesfälle bei Menschen durch Larven-Pfeilgift bis in die neueste Zeit verursacht worden sind [9]. über die Pharmakologie der anderen Larven-Gifte stehen Untersuchungen noch aus.

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Afrikanische Pfeilgifte by Dr. Hans Dieter Neuwinger
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