By A. Mark Smith
Someday among 1028 and 1038, Ibn al-Haytham accomplished his huge optical synthesis, Kitab al-Manazir ("Book of Optics"). by means of no later than 1200, and maybe just a little past, this treatise seemed in Latin below the name De aspectibus. In that shape it was once attributed to a definite "Alhacen." those adjustments in name and authorial designation are indicative of the profound modifications among the 2 types, Arabic and Latin, of the treatise. in lots of methods, in reality, they are often looked no longer easily as diverse types of an identical paintings, yet as varied works of their personal correct. for that reason, the Arab writer, Ibn al-Haytham, and his Latin incarnation, Alhacen, symbolize special, occasionally even conflicting, interpretive voices. And a similar holds for his or her respective texts. To complicate concerns, "Alhacen" doesn't signify a unmarried interpretive voice. there have been no less than translators at paintings at the Latin textual content, considered one of them adhering faithfully to the Arabic unique, the opposite content material with distilling, even paraphrasing, the Arabic unique. as a result, the Latin textual content provides no longer one, yet not less than faces to the reader. quantity This two-volume serious variation represents fourteen years of labor on Dr. Smith's half. presented the 2001 J. F. Lewis Award. quantity Two--English Translation
Read or Download Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume Two - English Translation (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society) PDF
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Extra info for Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume Two - English Translation (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society)
These two forms thus pass fromthe two eyes and meet where the two nerves join. 76]And clearevidence thatthe formsof visible objectsextend through the hollow of the nerve to reachthe final sensor and that vision is achieved [only] after [their]arrivalthere is that, when there is some obstructionin this nerve, vision is destroyed,but when the obstructionis removed, vision is restored. 77] Now the reason that the two forms sometimes join and sometimes do not is that, when the two eyes are in their naturalposition, they will be similarlyorientedwith respectto the single visible object,and thus the form of the single objectwill reach two places [on the surfaces of the two eyes] that are similarlyoriented.
60] On the basis of everything we have said, then, it has now been demonstrated that the eye senses the light and color on the surface of a visible objectby means solely of a form that extends from the surfaceof the visible objectto the eye througha transparentmedium interveningbetween the eye and the visible object, and [it has been demonstrated] that sight perceives only those forms [reachingthe eye] along the straight lines that are conceived to extend between the visible objectand the centerof the eye, those lines alone being perpendicularto all the surfacesof the tunics of the eye.
95Likewise, when it shines upon a transparentbody possessing some measureof opacity,light will pass throughit on accountof its transparency,but the light is impressedon its surfaceaccordingto its opacity. 65]Also, the glacialisis constitutedto receivethese formsand to sense them. The forms thus pass through it accordingto its capacity to receive them sensibly. 66] And when the form reaches the surface of the glacialis, it will create an effect in it, and the glacialis will suffer that effect, because it is a property of light to affect the eye, and it is a property of the eye to be af- 376 ALHACEN'SDE ASPECTIBUS fectedby light.
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