By John F. Watts
Greatly revised and up to date with extra fabric integrated in present chapters and new fabric on perspective resolved XPS, floor engineering and complimentary methods.
* comprises an available creation to the main spectroscopic options in floor analysis.
* presents descriptions of contemporary tools and techniques.
* contains a distinctive thesaurus of key floor research phrases.
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Extra info for An Introduction To Surface Analysis By XPS And AES
The disadvantages of the method are that it tends to be slower than other methods and requires a high-precision stage with low backlash. 2. Scanning the lens. This method requires that two pairs of deflector plates be built into the transfer lens. By applying potentials to these plates, the photoelectron image can be deflected with respect to the area-defining aperture within the transfer lens. The analysis area can therefore be scanned in the X and Y directions and a map built up. The advantage of this method is that it is faster than scanning the sample stage but it suffers from a major disadvantage.
By applying potentials to these plates, the photoelectron image can be deflected with respect to the area-defining aperture within the transfer lens. The analysis area can therefore be scanned in the X and Y directions and a map built up. The advantage of this method is that it is faster than scanning the sample stage but it suffers from a major disadvantage. The resolution of the map rapidly degrades as a function of distance from the centre of the map due to the spherical aberrations which are inevitably present in the electrostatic lens.
The charge compensation must also be uniform over the analysis area to prevent broadening of the XPS peaks. When charge compensation is necessary, it is normal practice to flood the sample with low-energy electrons. It is not usual to attempt to balance the charging exactly, an excess of electrons is used to produce a uniform negative charge of known magnitude to be produced at the surface of the sample. The peaks can then be shifted to their correct positions during data processing. This technique minimizes the risk of differential or non-uniform charging.
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